- John Baillie
Saturday, September 19, 2020
Friday, September 18, 2020
Thank you, Lord,
For the onerous beauty of my calling,
Here where I plow amid thorns and stones.
I love to serve in the teeth of the fight,
And to be useful in places
Where others may not want to go.
I don't want to be a pastor in a place
Where great pastors are a dime a dozen;
I want to be a pastor where being a man of God
Is a stark and unsettling thing.
Thank you for giving me that.
Thursday, September 17, 2020
“Everyone must submit himself to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established. The authorities that exist have been established by God. Consequently, he who rebels against the authority is rebelling against what God has instituted.” – Romans 13:1-2b
- Cranmer’s legacy is a complex one, and he is often accused of being wishy-washy and capitulating too much to King Henry VIII (pictured at right). But he did show remarkable courage and moral fortitude on several occasions, including at his execution.
- Cranmer is best known today as the author and compiler of The Book of Common Prayer, which is still the fundamental staple of all worship services in Anglican and Episcopal churches worldwide.
1529 – For nearly a decade and a half, Cranmer has pursued a career as a priest and theologian at Cambridge University. There he meets the retinue of King Henry VIII, and suggests to the royal advisors that the King’s desire to be legally divorced from his wife, Catherine of Aragon, could be validated by sound theological arguments. King Henry selects Cranmer himself to research and write a treatise on the subject.
1530-32 – Cranmer is sent to Rome to argue the case for Henry’s annulment before the Pope, but to no avail. He then visits the courts of the Lutheran princes of Germany and there marries the niece of a Lutheran reformer (but their marriage would be kept secret for most of his life). Meanwhile, with his mistress Anne Boleyn pregnant, Henry VIII needs to go forward with the annulment of his marriage whether the Pope approves or not.
1533 – When the Archbishop of Canterbury passes away, Cranmer is surprisingly selected as his replacement. Although hesitant to accept the post, he eventually agrees, and then allows Henry’s marriage to be annulled.
1534 –38 – A quick series of royal decisions push England in a Protestant direction. The King is declared the “supreme head” of the English church (rather than the Pope), English Bibles are ordered to be put in every church, and the Roman Catholic monasteries are liquidated.
1539-43 – Henry does an about-face and, while not giving up his leadership of the Church of England, tries to preserve certain Catholic doctrines and practices, including priestly celibacy and transubstantiation of the Eucharist; he now forbids reading of the Bible except by experts. Henry also has Thomas Cromwell, his supreme church advisor, executed under dubious charges (despite Cranmer’s objections), and nearly allows Cranmer himself to be done away with.
1547 – Henry dies and his nine-year-old son Edward comes to the throne, under the guidance of the Duke of Somerset. Somerset and his successor push England back into a radically Protestant direction,
1549-1552 – Cranmer publishes his Book of Common Prayer; it is put to immediate use in the churches (and is still used today). He also composes his “Forty-Two Articles,” which will eventually become the basis for the foundational declaration of Anglican theology.
1553 – After young King Edward’s death, Cranmer supports Lady Jane Grey’s claim to the throne; but within a few months she is pushed out by Henry’s Catholic daughter Mary (known in Protestant history as ‘Bloody Mary’). Cranmer is immediately arrested after the regime change.
1554-1557 – During Mary’s reign, Catholicism is aggressively reinstated, and Protestant leaders are regularly executed. Among these martyrs are Cranmer’s friends Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer; then in 1556 Cranmer’s own time comes. Under great duress, he signs a recantation of his Protestant views. But at his execution, he surprises everyone by recanting his recantation, deciding at the very end to stay faithful to the Protestant principles of which he had become convinced. While burning at the stake, he held out his hand in the flames to let it burn first, as if to atone for the writing of his false recantation.
1558 – Queen Mary dies and Elizabeth becomes queen. Through her decades-long reign, England once again swings back toward a Protestant direction, sometimes violently persecuting its Catholic citizens, before finally settling on a “middle road” between the two theological camps.
[Hugh Latimer, to his friend at their execution:] “Be of good cheer, Master Ridley, and play the man; we shall this day light such a candle in England, as I hope, by God’s grace, shall never be put out.”
Wednesday, September 16, 2020
Tuesday, September 15, 2020
Monday, September 14, 2020
"It would be a mistake to suppose that the highest state of inward experience is characterized by great excitements--raptures and ecstasies.... One of the remarkable results in a soul in which faith is the sole governing principle is that it is entirely peaceful."
- François Fénelon, 17th-18th century archbishop and spiritual writer
Saturday, September 12, 2020
Wise are the wonders of Thy hands; Thy judgments are a mighty deep.
Above the heavens' created rounds, Thy mercies, Lord, extend;
Thy truth outlives the narrow bounds where time and nature end.
- from Isaac Watts' hymnographic rendering of Psalm 36
Friday, September 11, 2020
Thursday, September 10, 2020
“This is how we know that we love the children of God: by loving God and carrying out his commands. This is love for God: to obey his commands.” – 1 John 5:2-3a
“You have heard that it was said, ‘Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth.’ But I tell you, Do not resist an evil person. If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also….You have heard that it was said, ‘Love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’ But I tell you: Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you.” – Matthew 5:38-39, 43-44
- Menno Simons (right), 1496-1561, helped to unify the non-resistant Anabaptists after the catastrophe of the Munster rebellion.
- The Anabaptists are usually seen as the fourth major wing of the Reformation, after the Lutherans, the Reformed churches, and the English Reformation. The Anabaptists, however, found persecution almost everywhere they went and did not ally themselves with secular authority. They are known as “the Radical Reformation,” and were originally feared as anarchists. Their direct legacy carries on today in the Mennonites, Amish, Hutterite, and Brethren in Christ churches, and indirectly in the Baptists and Congregationalists.
- “Anabaptist” means “re-baptizer,” because their practice was to baptize people as adults, even if they had been previously baptized as infants.
- The Anabaptists decided to follow the Bible as closely as they could. This led them to challenge some of the fundamental assumptions of their culture—namely, they suggested that people ought to have the right to choose for themselves what they believed, and that true Christians ought not to be involved in matters of war or secular politics. These were dangerous ideas at the time, and they led to many early Anabaptists being persecuted and martyred.
- Anabaptists were also feared because their name became associated with several very radical sects. Foremost among these was a group led by Jan Matthys and Jan of Leiden, which took over the German city of Munster and turned it into a bizarre cult center for more than a year. Most Anabaptists, however, denounced these actions.
- They began in Switzerland, but persecution pushed them into Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands; then later into eastern Europe and Russia; then finally to the US and Canada.
- The importance of discipleship—while they acknowledged that salvation came by God’s grace alone, through faith, they put much more stress on the matter of obedience in the Christian life than some other reformers.
- Love is the highest obligation of the Christian, an obligation which is expressed in concrete ways (i.e., in actions, not just as an emotional sentiment)—one of the foremost ways this love is expressed is by a commitment to peace.
- Religious toleration—people ought not to be coerced or forced into their faith-commitments; they should be free to choose for themselves. For Christians, baptism is the symbol of this choice.
- Separation from the state—the church is a different society altogether, set under the love-oriented law of Christ. God has instituted secular government as a means of keeping order outside of the perfect order of Christ’s kingdom. Hence, Christians ought not to serve in the military or in political offices that would require the use of force, and they ought not to take oaths.
“We who were formerly no people at all, and who knew of no peace, are now called to be a church of peace. True Christians do not know vengeance. They are the children of peace. Their hearts overflow with peace. Their mouths speak peace, and they walk in the way of peace.”
“True evangelical faith cannot lie dormant. It clothes the naked, it feeds the hungry, it comforts the sorrowful, it shelters the destitute, it serves those that harm it, it binds up that which is wounded, it has become all things to all people.”
Wednesday, September 09, 2020
Tuesday, September 08, 2020
Monday, September 07, 2020
Saturday, September 05, 2020
Lord God almighty, I pray you for your great mercy, and by the token of the holy cross, guide me to your will, to my soul's need, better than I can myself; and shield me against my foes, seen and unseen; and teach me to do your will, that I may love you inwardly before all things with a clean mind and a clean body. For you are my maker and redeemer, my help, my comfort, my trust, and my hope. Praise and glory be to you now, ever and ever, world without end. Amen.
- King Alfred the Great
Friday, September 04, 2020
Does God really exist? The vast majority of people in our society, throughout its entire history, would almost certainly have answered “Yes, of course!” In recent years, however, there have been a lot of folks questioning that assumption. In the early 2000s, a spate of popular bestselling books came out from writers known as “the New Atheists,” vigorously mocking traditional religious beliefs and claiming that religion had been disproven by science. However, to anyone who paid attention to how those books were received among the writers’ colleagues in the academic worlds of philosophy, theology, and yes, even science, the widespread sense was that the books were more bluster and nonsense than anything else. Nevertheless, they seemed to hit a mark: more and more people are abandoning traditional faith-perspectives in our society (though on a global scale, the reverse is actually the case). “Nones”—that is, people who say they have no religious aspect to their lives or worldview at all—are one of the most swiftly-rising demographics in our country.
All of this is not much of a surprise to anybody who has been paying attention to social trends. Sometimes Christians might feel a certain anxiety about such things, but I generally don’t worry too much about it. Of course, I do want people to believe in the truth-claims of Christianity—there is nothing so beautiful, life-giving, and true in the world as the faith that I’ve been blessed to receive. But I don’t feel much anxiety about the attacks of atheists and agnostics, because the plain fact of the matter is that they’re bound to fall short (and that’s coming from someone who, for a while at least, counted himself an agnostic!). God does exist, he has revealed himself in history, in Scripture, and most of all in the person of Jesus. In short, Christian truth really is true, and, as Shakespeare once put it, “The truth will out.” Truth has a way of becoming known, simply because it is true, as it presents itself over and over again to honest seekers of all generations.
Let me give one rather striking example. Back in 1955, theism (a belief in God) had been almost entirely eradicated from academic philosophy departments in universities. A group of prominent atheist philosophers issued a volume of triumphant essays at that time, essentially as a statement of their triumph in their field. The book had as its editors two of the rising stars and leading lights of those atheist philosophers: Anthony Flew and Alasdair MacIntyre. Now fast-forward the clock sixty years, and guess what you see? Both Anthony Flew and MacIntyre reversed course and became convinced of God’s existence because of the evidence for it from science, logic, history, and philosophy. Flew (once called “the pope of atheists”), issued a book before his passing titled simply “There Is a God.” And MacIntyre became not only a theist, but a Christian, and is now one of the leading theologians in the world. The tide of God-believing philosophers has risen substantially in university departments all over the world, to the point where a significant majority of experts in the field of the arguments for whether God exists or not (philosophy of religion) are of the opinion that he does. There is powerful and compelling evidence that not only does God exist, but also that the biblical story stands up to scrutiny: this creator-God loves us to such an extent that he has called us, redeemed us, and entered our story to attain our salvation on our behalf. I truly believe that “the truth will out,” the tide of faith will turn again, as it always has before, and the great Christian revival that is sweeping through the most unlikely corners of the world right now will one day soon return to our shores.
Thursday, September 03, 2020
“For [God] chose us in [Christ] before the creation of the world to be holy and blameless in his sight. In love he predestined us to be adopted as his sons through Jesus Christ, in accordance with his pleasure and will—to the praise of his glorious grace….In him we were also chosen, having been predestined according to the plan of him who works out everything in conformity with the purpose of his will.” – Ephesians 1:4-6a, 11
“What then shall we say? Is God unjust? Not at all! For he says to Moses, ‘I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion.’ It does not, therefore, depend on man’s desire or effort, but on God’s mercy….Therefore God has mercy on whom he wants to have mercy, and he hardens whom he wants to harden.” – Romans 9:14-16, 18
- The Christian tradition that comes from the Swiss Reformation (particularly the tradition shaped by Calvin) is known as the “Reformed” tradition, and it emphasizes the priority of Scripture and the sovereignty of God. Several current denominations, like the Presbyterians, Dutch Reformed, and Church of Scotland, are direct offshoots of the Reformed tradition; it also played a major role in the growth of the Baptists.
- Zwingli was a pastor by choice and profession; Calvin was first and foremost a scholar and writer who was pressed into service (almost against his will) as a pastor.
- Church practice: A new kind of worship service was introduced, stripped of liturgy and vestments and icons, and centered instead around the teaching of the Bible. The Lord’s Supper was now seen to be a symbol of Christ’s spiritual presence rather than the actual, physical presence of the body and blood of Jesus.
- Doctrine: Calvin’s teaching on predestination focused many of the debates in Christian theology onto the interaction between God’s sovereignty and human free will; these debates continue to this day.
“In the cross of Christ, as in a splendid theater, the incomparable goodness of God is set before the whole world. The glory of God shines, indeed, in all creatures, but never more brightly than in the cross, in which there was a wonderful change of things - the condemnation of all men was manifested, sin blotted out, salvation restored to men; in short, the whole world was renewed and all things restored to order.”
“Zeal without sound doctrine is like a sword in the hands of a lunatic.”
“There is not one blade of grass, there is no color in this world that is not intended to make us rejoice.”
“God preordained, for his own glory and the display of His attributes of mercy and justice, a part of the human race, without any merit of their own, to eternal salvation, and another part, in just punishment of their sin, to eternal damnation.”
“One of the most remarkable renewals brought by the Reformation was a shift in the whole idea of what it meant to be worthy and do good. The very purpose of life was redirected. Preoccupation with acquired virtue and earned status was displaced by confidence in friendship freely received and permanently guaranteed by God’s unearned love.” – Raymond K. Anderson